Going into any gamified learning expereince a designer needs a structure and framework to work around. This article by Liz Kolb presents some great strategies for gamification in a k-12 classroom but they are still relevant to in all areas of gamification design.
While step one says that you should use a gamification software this is not a requirement. Gamification can be high tech or low tech. Use whichever method best fits the needs of your learner.